Current IssueFall 2015/Spring 2016

WANDA G. ADDISON

Black History Month Programs: Performance and Heritage

Abstract: Implications embedded in Black History Month programs access desires for cultural recognition of African American contributions and history within the United States. Equally important at these events is the implicit furthering of knowledge and connection to the past and the sustainability of African American heritage and culture. Concepts of "home" as historical, national, and individual community, infuse each performance and support and encourage connections that in turn insist on the removal of myopic considerations of cultural subjectivity and sustainability. Black History Month programs revision "home" through counter-stories of Blackness in America and American-ness in Black America.

LAURIE STANLEY-BLACKWELL and SHAMUS Y. MACDONALD

Going Strong: The Role of Physical Strength among the Scots of Eastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton

Abstract: Drawing on the disciplines of social history and folklore, this article examines a much-neglected dimension of local story lore—feats of strength stories—among the immigrant Scots and their descendants in Eastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. Fieldwork conducted in both Gaelic and English, as
well as print sources, document the rich prevalence of stories about exceptional physical strength and stamina, which once served as vital expressions of identity and community. These stories still form a vigorous component of the regional folktale corpus and represent a favourite genre among tradition bearers.

STEFANIA CARDINALE

Intangible Cultural Heritage Revitalization for Development and Tourism: The Case of Purulia Chhau Dance

Abstract: UNESCO's recent Conventions (2003 and 2005) take intangible heritage's potential into account through integrating cultural expressions, practices and traditions into development frameworks. However, how this integration should happen in the realm of the practice and what impacts would result from it is crucial in defining also the safeguarding of intangible heritage. This article will investigate how the intangible cultural heritage (ICH) of Chhau dance of Purulia India, was accommodated in a development project. A critical examination of actors involved and actions of the project, through an actor-network perspective, will discuss what this meant in relation to the heritage. The article highlights that the actions of integrating intangible heritage into a development project framework translated into the revitalisation of the cultural element, considered an outdated cultural product in need of modernisation. To what extent has the traditional form of art changed in line with project and development expectations?

TIFENN DINESH-GOURLAY

Apports du réalisateur et des communautés sur les films documentaires réalisés pour l'UNESCO sur le Patrimoine Culturel Immatériel

Abstract: This submission deals with the messages expressed by ethnologists who have produced documentary films on topics that are included in UNESCO's survey of Intangible Culture. The article examines the values promoted by ICH through images and sounds, taking into account the point of view of the director as well as the community's judgement of the values that should be publicly presented. The ideas expressed by directors and creators in conversations about their work are highlighted in the study. The various viewpoints expressed by the directors of documentaries dealing with ICH are observed, in an attempt to discern the influence a director can have on the outcome of his or her film. The ultimate goal is to establish a theoretical space linking documentary film and heritage, in order to define an anthropology of emotions leading to an interplay of roles between the person who is filming, the subject being filmed and the audience.

FRANCESCA COMINELLI

Repenser le développement durable : quel rôle pour les savoir-faire et les métiers d'art ?

Abstract: Rethinking sustainable development: Is there a role for know-how and crafts? In an economic environment characterized by extreme competition between companies, the need to open up increasingly distant markets and the difficulties created by the economic and financial crisis, it is necessary to redefine the foundations for the development of contemporary societies. Can intangible cultural heritage (ICH), work of excellence and passion, respect for the environment, and diversity of local practices, permanent innovation, and creativity be the starting points for a new kind of sustainable development? To develop this problem, this paper will focus on a specific element of the ICH: know-how related to traditional practices and, in particular, crafts. In this context, two cases of study are presented: The practice of dry stone construction in the department of Vaucluse, which shows the essential contribution of know-how to spatial planning and more broadly sustainable development; The manufacture of tapestries in Aubusson, emphasizing the need to avoid the weakening of the sectors and the relocation of certain phases of production in order to create local and sustainable economic dynamics. From the presentation of these case studies, this paper will highlight the idea that the safeguarding of ICH should not be conceived of as the simple preservation of know-how or as a vestige of the past. On the contrary, safeguarding must be thought out and implemented in a dynamic way, taking into account the crucial role of know-how.

CLÁUDIA S. KAREZ, JUAN M. HERNÁNDEZ FACCIO, ELKE
SCHÜTTLER, RICARDO ROZZI, MARITZA GARCIA, ÁNGELA
YADIRA MEZA, MIGUEL CLÜSENER-GODT

Learning experiences about intangible heritage conservation for sustainability in biosphere reserves

Abstract: This paper presents case studies on different approaches to sustainable development carried out in the UNESCO MAB (Man and Biosphere) World
Biosphere Reserve Network in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2012, Latin America and the Caribbean had 116 biosphere reserves designated in 21 countries. In this region several biosphere reserves have implemented important management actions towards sustainable development by conserving ecosystem services and biodiversity (UNESCO 2006; 2008). These case studies highlight good practices on the use of traditional knowledge by scientific research and education for cultural and biological diversity conservation to the benefit of local and Indigenous communities. They focus on improving recognition of the unique ecological knowledge of these communities in Cabo de Hornos (Chile) and Bosawas (Nicaragua), and in the Caribbean: Sierra del Rosario and Cuchilla del Toa (Cuba). Moreover, they explore and reinforce the links between biological and cultural diversities in these outstanding sites, through local and Indigenous knowledge for the sustainable management of those
sites.

DANIEL R. LAXER

Exchanges and Hybridities: Red Leggings and Rubbaboos in the Fur Trade, 1600s-1800s

Abstract: In the North American fur trade, food and clothing were among the most frequently exchanged material, serving both as necessities of life and expressions of identity. Not only were materials exchanged but new fashions and tastes developed among fur traders and First Nations across North America from the 1600s to the early 1800s. This article examines these two realms of material culture through the link of sensory history, suggesting that they were central to the experiences of the fur trade and indicate patterns of cultural exchange and reciprocity. Dress and diet were key signposts of identity and markers of difference, yet patterns of material exchanges during the expansion of the North American fur trade produced hybrid styles in both clothing and food that were geographically widespread. Examining material culture through a sensory history approach reveals new understandings of the adaptations that shaped the fur trade.

AARON LIU-ROSENBAUM

Listening to Noise: An Interactive Soundscape Installation that Transforms Place in the Service of Intangible Cultural Heritage

Abstract: Emerging technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for creating and preserving intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, these technologies pose fresh challenges to both our understanding and preservation of cultural heritage as new practices emerge through the interchange between traditional practices and current technologies. In the field of music, these new practices have blurred an already tenuous distinction between music and noise, which requires a more inclusive definition of intangible cultural heritage with regard to sound. This article will examine the case of an interactive sound installation that engaged the local community with environmental noise in the form of a sound portrait of Quebec as a lens through which to explore the above issues.

MARGARET MAGAT

Intangible Cultural Heritage, Folklorists, and TCPs in the Hawaiian Context

Abstract: In the world of cultural resource management, the work is often done by archaeologists and policy makers. Ethnographic studies or surveys of
traditional cultural properties are usually conducted by individuals other than a trained folklorist or ethnographer. Yet in such studies of cultural impact assessment or projects involving federal funding such as Section 106 where consultation with the community is required in order to identify traditional cultural properties, folklorists with their understanding of the intangible as well as the material aspects of culture are particularly poised to answer the challenges in working with cultural properties. The notion of "cultural attachment" which integrate both the tangible and intangible (Maly 1999) often poses a challenge to those used to dealing just with the physical dimensions of material culture. In Hawai'i, where natural resources such as hills or mountains as well as ocean currents are seen as cultural resources, there is often conflict between the community and those seeking to develop the place. Hawaiian living traditions include the cultural practice of mo'olelo (stories, knowledge, opinion) surrounding wahi pana (sacred, legendary place), which anchor the intangible living traditions to a physical place or site which can qualify as a traditional cultural property. The conflicts tend to arise when those in cultural resource management fail to understand the critical intertwining of the intangible cultural heritage with the visible environment seen by Hawaiians in a different light. This paper explores the field of cultural resource management and how a folklorist's understanding of "cultural attachment" and world view can assist in the understanding of traditional cultural properties which are intertwined with the intangible cultural heritage of living Hawaiians.

ELIZABETH RAINEY

The Art of Storytelling in Bedouin Society: A 21st-Century Ethnographic Collection of Poems from the United Arab Emirates

Abstract: Individuals represent the cultural vehicles through which intangible heritage is transmitted and so this study will examine the role that Emirati oral Bedouin culture plays in this regard. Its vibrant tradition expresses emotions and teaches ethical conduct during social occasions, both a source of communal entertainment and at the same time, a lynchpin of the social hierarchy. Through diverse heritage performances, the Bedouins practise their own version of intangible culture, underscoring folk norms and informing behaviours that enforce family, tribe and country. Themes such as nature, homesickness and patriotism are examined in addition to traditional dance, as forms of patronage culture. Thus folk memory is validated and the Arabic vernacular illustrates a dynamic yet sometimes obsolete version of World Arabic. Thus the fragile nature of these resources in a rapidly developing environment is highlighted and so, too, the politics of preservation. The contributions were voluntary and the result of twenty years of social capital in the community.

C. J. TAYEH

Black Power, Brand Power: Brand-led Interpretations of Indigenous Intangible Cultural Heritage and Propositions for Sustainable Development

Abstract: This paper analyzes Indigenous intangible cultural heritage (ICH) through a commercial filter. It makes the point that brand and Indigenous ICH are conceptually aligned, and this alignment then generates a commercial understanding of Indigenous ICH and its strategic importance. Using an Australian case study of Cape York Dreaming Track, this paper argues that brand-led interpretations of Indigenous ICH hold immense promise for sustainable development initiatives. It shows how a sustainable development project can integrate brand into its longterm targets, improving ethical engagement, cultural investment and the quality of access and benefit sharing agreements, defined at international law.

 

REASEARCH REPORTS


MEGHANN E. JACK

Beyond Preservation: A Consideration of the Intangible Aspects of Buildings

Heather Sparling

Canary in the Mine and the Concerns of Research Councils, Applied Ethnomusicologists, and Museum Professionals

Nicolas Landry

Estimation des ressources nécessaires à l'opération d'une pêcherie sédentaire gaspésienne su 17e siècle : la Compagnie de l'île Percée

 

BOOK REVIEWS



Diane Chisholm

Jamieson, Keith and Michelle A. Hamilton. 2016. Dr. Oronhyatekha – Security, Justice, and Equality

Timothy Rawlings

Patin, Valéry. 2012[2005]. Tourisme et patrimoine. Nouvelle édition.

Romain Bijeard

Patin, Valéry. 2012[2005]. Tourisme et patrimoine. Nouvelle édition.

Andrew Parnaby

Ian Brodie and Paul MacKinnon. 2015. Old Trout Funnies: The Comic Origins of the Cape Breton Liberation Army

David P. Stephens

Kay, Jon. 2016. Folk Art and Aging - Life-Story Objects and Their Makers